4. Intra-spinal: provides direct access to the spinal cord for the administration of specific drugs such as anesthetics. Requires trained staff and damage to the cord or hemorrhage are the disadvantages. (Howland, 2006)
6. Inhalational: main advantage is its use in the administration of anesthetic drugs as well as drugs for respiratory diseases since it provides easy access to lungs. Also, quick action because of extensive blood supply of lungs is another advantage. The short duration of action due to less partial pressure and exhalation of the inspired drug is a major disadvantage. Another disadvantage is a short list drug that can be administered by this route. (Howland, 2006)
The major drug interactions and actions in the body include: Durg-Drug interaction i.e. addition of another drug might enhance or lower the activity of the drug. First Pass metabolism i.e. Drugs have taken through oral route undergo a process of activation and metabolism. This decreases their decreases their bioavailability and provides the bloodstream with the active metabolite of the drug. Drug-Enzyme interaction i.e. several enzymes in the body act on drugs to release their active metabolites. Drug-Receptor Interaction i.e. Final action of the drugs takes place when they bind to their specific receptors and cause either activation or deactivation of the receptor to produce the desired effect. (Katzung, 2009)
Antidepressants: these drugs include Diazepam, Verapamil and Lorazepam etc. the generic names are Xanax etc. These drugs more commonly known as sleeping pills inhibit Gaba receptor and lower the levels of stress.
Opioids: These drugs have a specific action of painkillers. They act on their specific opioid receptors in the body namely alpha, beta, and mu. They bind to these receptors and inhibit the transmission of pain sensation or alteration of brain’s perception of pain.