Criminology theories gain explanatory power from the inherent logical consistency since they evaluate theories to describe and predict reality. Some of the uses of the theories include linking multiple of studies together. provide patterns to interpret data, supply frameworks with concepts and variables with special significance, and to provide patterns to interpret data. Research in criminology uses standardized and systematic procedures to search for knowledge. Some of the stages in research include problem identification, development of research design, selection of data collection techniques, and review of findings.
In problem identification, an investigator has to choose an area of study, and test hypotheses frequently. An investigator translates concepts in a hypothesis into variables. Hypotheses testing precede operationalization to measure different variables. Development design involves data gathering in a logic and structural way to guide systematic collection of data. The two categories of validity in research design include internal and external validity. Internal validity is certain that experimental interventions will cause changes in the study group. External validity has the ability to generalize research findings to other settings.
Some of the investigations of the causes of criminality use sophisticated research methods to examine biological criminological theories developed in the twentieth century. The theories in this decade examine intelligence quotient, genetic abnormalities, influence of testosterone, neurotransmitters, adrenaline, and factors related to nutrition, heredity, and the potential transfer of criminal tendencies.