At the beginning of the period between 1948 and 1984, this infrastructure did not reach every village along the way, making it incredibly difficult for those who did produce goods to sell them to a larger market (Guttman, 1980). As the period advanced, infrastructure was improved, and as the communications revolution has progressed world wide these technologies are reaching into smaller and smaller villages across India (Saith,
1981). Along with these advancements have been improvements in education. Both the development of infrastructure and the improvement of education have helped India economically, with the advancements picking up speed in the mid-1980s.
The cotton and jute industries were thriving before Indian independence from British rule, and these industries experienced continued growth—with the criticism that foreign trade was not developed properly in order to take international advantage of these industries (Rose, 1968. Rajaraman, 1975).
In a 1960 speech, Ambassador Braj Kumar Nehru observes the progression of world events from pre-World War I to that point in history. From his point of view, the Victorian Era had created a stable but unjust world in which the superpowers dominated politics and culture and nations like India were supposed to stand on the sidelines and admire the superpowers. The two world wars changed the superpowers, redrew national boundaries, upended set cultural practices, and plunged the world into economic and political chaos. (Nehru also points out the steep rise in Muslimism across the world, which had a definite impact in how his nation was ultimately partitioned.) The nation of India rose up just at the end of the struggles, and from Nehru’s perspective in 1960 it was poised as an example for other Asian and African developing nations to follow.