Computer Drawing

Chapter 1 1. Explain the difference between engineers and technologists. Engineers are problem solvers. They are creative to use technical means to solve problems. They design products, systems, devices, and structures to improve our living conditions. They work with engineers and are concerned with the practical aspects of engineering in planning and production. 2. How can visualizing help an engineer in the design process? Visualization can help an engineer to mentally picture things that do not exist.
Besides, engineers with good visualization ability are able to picture things in their minds. Furthermore, good visualization skills allow them to control mental image, allowing them to move around the image, change the form, look inside, and picture the inside of the mental image of the design problem. 3. What are the three main areas or phases of the model-centered design process? Do the activities in these areas happen in a sequential fashion? The three main areas of phases of the model-centered design process are ideation, refinement, and implementation.
Model-centered engineering design is a nonlinear team approach to design that brings together the input, processes, and output elements necessary to produce a product. 4. Explain how PLM is used in the design process. What is its relationship to CIC? Product Life Cycle Management (PLM) is an organizational model that involves all the company’s department, including the engineering design process, in the design and manufacture of a product. In addition to CAD software, specialized software products and technologies are used in conjunction.

PLM is used as a basis for creating the accumulated corporate intellectual capital (CIC) of a company or organization. 5. Outline the steps of problem identification in the ideation phase. Problem identification is an ideation process which consisting six elements: Problem statement, Research, Data gathering, Objectives, Limitations, and Scheduling. 6. What kinds of graphics are used in the ideation phase? The types of graphics used in ideation phase include charts, graphs, ideation sketches and drawings, design drawings, analysis and concept models, and presentation graphics. 7.
What is the designer’s notebook? How is it used? A designer’s notebook is similar to a diary and contains many notes and sketches that are organized to show the path of development for a product and process. A well documented notebook contains notes, calculations, signatures, and dates. Keeping good note can make an accurate document for an original design. 8. Outline the main activities in the refinement phase. Refinement is a repetitive (iterative or cyclical) process used to test a preliminary design. Refinement consists of three main areas: modeling, design analysis, and design visualization. . Describe the different kinds of models used in the design process. Modeling is the process of representing abstract ideas, words, and forms, through the orderly use of simplified text and images. Models are classified as either descriptive or predictive. Descriptive model presents abstract ideas, products, or processes in a recognize form. Descriptive models consisting 3-D CAD or physical scale models used simply to visually represent the design. Predictive models can be mathematical or virtual 3-D CAD models that can be used to analyze the motion or physical properties of the design. 0. Describe the different kinds of analysis techniques used in the design process. Types of analysis techniques used in the design process are Property analysis, Mechanism analysis, Functional analysis, Human factors analysis, Aesthetic analysis, Market analysis, and Financial analysis. 11. Outline the three ways the 3-D model database can be used in the implementation phase. Three ways the 3-D model database can be used in the implementation phase are production, marketing and service & documentation.
Production is 3-D CAD models which are used to run machine tools and make parts and layout the factory floor. Marketing is 3-D CAD models are used for illustrations, presentation graphics, and advertising. Service & Documentation is 3-D CAD models are used for service manuals, training, and assembly instructions. 12. What kinds of documentation might be produced as part of the design process? Design process documentation 2-D engineering drawings, 3-D design models, presentation drawings and illustrations. 13. Explain the role of PDM in the design process.
What is the relationship of ERP to PDM? Product Data Management (PDM) is the name given to specific computer-based tools and used to track CAD or office documents with user-defined data fields, such as revisions, authors, date, and so forth in the development and manufacture of a product. Within PDM, Enterprise resource planning (ERP) is a system that specifically focuses on the ordering of material and planning for the materials used for manufacture of a product. 14. What is the difference between conventions and standards?
Conventions commonly are accepted practices, rules, or methods. In technical drawing, an example of a convention is the use of dashed lines or hidden features, on a multiview drawing to designate a feature hidden from the current viewpoint. Standards are sets of rules (formal; ANSI or ISO) that govern how technical drawings are represented. 15. Describe two reverse engineering techniques. One of the reverse engineering techniques are the using of coordinate measuring machine (CMM) that can measure objects accurately and then inputs the 3-D data into a CAD system and modified it.
Another one is called scanning by using laser or specialized photographic equipment to make critical measurement from existing parts. 16. Describe two different rapid prototyping technologies. One of the rapid prototyping technologies are Stereolithography (SLA) which using a laser focused beam to harden a light-sensitive polymer. Another one is Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) which using a molten plastic to deposit a series of very thin layers to build and create a part. 17.
Explain why an enterprise might want to store data in an off-site data warehouse. Then reason of an enterprise want to store data in an off-site data warehouse is protect against fire or other castasthophies at the companies engineering center. 18. Describe two different VR display techniques. Two different VR display are the using of head-mounted display (HMD) that only for individual users and multiple projection systems called computer augementedd virtual environments (CAVEs) for multiple users in a larger physical space.

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