Early nursing theorists aimed in defining what is nursing. conversely, contemporary theorists discussed the metaparadigm concepts in more depth, gave high regard to nursing actions in particular, and attempted to provide the rationale as to when is nursing necessary (Daniels, 2004). The works of contemporary theorists like Myra Levine, Dorothea Orem and Sister Callista Roy as highlighted by Daniels (2004), serve as the theoretical basis for a variety of interventions in current nursing practice.
In the theories formulated by Sister Callista Roy which is known as the Adaptation Theory and in the Self-Care Theory by Dorothea Orem, the concepts given emphasis pertain to Man, Health, the Environment and Nursing (Timby, 2009).
Man as defined by Dorothea Orem in her Self-Care Theory, is “an individual who utilizes self-care to sustain life and health, recover from disease or injury, or cope with its effects” (Timby, 2009, p. 7). On the contrary, according to Sister Callista Roy in her Adaptation Theory, Man is “a social, mental, spiritual and physical being affected by stimuli in the internal and external environments” (Timby, 2009, p. 7). In these two definitions of man, it is evident that man as described in the Adaptation theory portrays the different dimensions of a man whereas man in the Self-Care Theory is depicted in general.
Health is the product of practices that people have learned to carry out on their own behalf to maintain life and well-being as stressed in the Self-Care Theory by Dorothea Orem (Timby, 2009, p. 7). Conversely, Health is defined as the persons capability to respond appropriately to changes in the environment (Timby, 2009). It is apparent that the two aforementioned theories defined health in varied ways.