The coral bleaching was first noticed in the 1980’s and since then the reef has been experiencing frequent and repetitive mass bleaching. Though salinity has been effectively prominent, there is also presence of toxic chemicals, UV radiation as well as reduced temperatures. By the period 2012 to 2040,
the experience with coral reef is expected to become more frequent in bleaching. This is seen as the greatest threat to the reef system in the world. The intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has forecast that this will mostly be caused by the high summer temperatures which induce bleaching. Other places that will be greatly damaged by the bleaching include areas around the sea for example Indian Ocean where over 90 percent of the coral cover is lost in Seychelles, Sri Lanka, Kenya and Tanzania. Economists have also predicted mass coral bleaching occurrences in Hawaiian corals as well as warming of the ocean (Dove & Hoegh, 17).
According to Raymond (2004), The International Tropical Ecosystems Symposium has therefore come up with ways of strengthening the network of marine managers. This will be achieved through engaging effective political and indigenous leadership in order to achieve sustainable management.