Domestication of Plants and Animals in Anthropology.


Taking wheat as an example, the wild variety of wheat had a tough but easily breakable rachis. The seed of the wild variety of barley easily clutter releasing the grains far away where they independently grow into mature wheat. In addition, the tough shell on the seeds of wild wheat prevents the seeds from being pre maturely exposed. Domesticated wheat on the other hand easily separates from char making it suitable for flouring. Progressive harvesting and planting of wild wheat lead to mutations that led to formation of a variety of wheat which had tougher seed coats to sustain the roughness which wheat goes through in the process of harvesting. Animals, on the other hand, had also to go through transformation suitable evidence lies in wild goats found in the Middle East which have horns with totally different shape as those that are reared at home (Ember 168). Animals and plants in the wild even though had more similarities with those that are domesticated, they are different because they had to gain or lose a number features to make them adaptable for domestic purposes. There are two theories explaining why domestication occurred within a few thousand years ago. One of the theories, Gordon Childe’s Theory has it that unreliable climatic conditions led to domestication of animals and plants. Long periods of drought in the Middle East led to scarcity of food or even water. This led to crowding around water points and areas that earlier on had plenty of food. Man, therefore, realized that to mitigate the effect of drought and increase food production, domestication of plants and animals was inevitable (Ember 169).Another theory originated by Mark Cohen, Lewis-Flannery explains that domestication was as a result of curiosity and adventure. The man admired the beauty and abundance that defined hunting and collecting areas. He, therefore, wanted to replicate this abundance in his own home. This theory further agrees that population pressure

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