The role of the nurse in evidence-based practice is to use research findings to conduct decision-making that will effectively guide their actions, practices and interactions with their patients (Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2011). Nurses are required to have specific actions that are not just clinically appropriate but cost effective, so that they can be professionally accountable to their patients through quality improvements and positive healthcare transformations. These initiatives encompasses patient-centered practice adoption, model advancement and theory development, education and curricular rearrangement, scientific rendezvous in new research areas, as well as engagement in local and nationwide research network that seeks to enhance nursing practices (Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center, 2014). In order to avoid the mounting cost of healthcare, nurses are now expected to be part of the cost-controlling practices and they are expected to document and apply social pertinent and effective practices (Riba, 2008).
Most institutions and health organizations apply a combination of models depending on their clinical setting and type of patient care required. They all observe the patient population, interventions, comparison, and outcome (PICO) format which entails synthesis and evaluation of targeted multiple-interventions (Dontje, 2007). There is the Patient Safety Research Coordinating model, which comprises a combination of concepts acquired from scientific information regarding knowledge transfer, to social marketing skills, to organizational innovation combined with behavioral and social transformations (Centre for Health Services Research, 2006). There are also models that focus on execution of nursing research into clinical practices, and they include Stetler model, the Magnet Recognition Program developed by American Nurses Credentialing Center, Baby-Friendly Hospital Certification model,