These three branches of power should be dynamically balanced, and its balance is the indicator of the state’s right organization. The government, according to Locke, should consist of people responsible for observing the laws, the latter being introduced for preserving general freedom and welfare. When agreeing to be a citizen of some state, a person should obey these laws, but not the caprices of the unlimited power. John Locke’s considers despotism worse than the “natural state”. If the conditions of this social contract are broken, people have all the right to demand their power back.
Therefore, John Locke describes the state organization as follows. The state (government) acquires the right to issue laws (legislative power), punish for crimes (executive power) and deal with the state’s external enemies (the right for war and peace). However, all these rights are given to the state exclusively to enable it to defend its citizens. The state’s power is not unlimited: it cannot handle people’s lives and property, because all people are given their natural rights, and these should be restricted only as far as the safety of other members of the society is concerned. The state, therefore, cannot act taking arbitrary decisions, as it should be guided by law which is universal for everybody. Nor can the state take property from people – and even collect different payments without agreement of the majority of people or their representatives.
John Locke considers that both executive and federal powers should be given to a monarch, as any discrepancies between these two branches of power can result in chaos. However, the activity of a monarch must account for all people’s interests. Locke emphasizes the importance of introducing a system of checks and balances – this policy is likely to ensure the balance between all powers.