noea associated with progressive obstruction of expiratory airflow secondary to chronic airways and lung parenchyma inflammation (Woodley and Whelan, 1992. Sutherland and Cherniack, 2004. Fibbri, et al., 2008). COPD, the term used to refer chronic bronchitis and emphysema, is one of the most common disorders in an adult lung (American Lung Association,
2009. National Lung Heart and Heart Blood Institute, 2009). Both chronic bronchitis and emphysema alike coexists. therefore, referred to by the physicians as COPD (American Lung Association, 2009). On the other hand, Barnes (2000) stated that COPD encompasses chronic obstructive bronchitis accompanied with small airway obstruction as well as emphysema with air space enlargement, destruction of parenchyma of the lung, loss of elasticity of the lung, and small airway closure.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the leading cause of death in the western society, requires prevention and treatment improvement (Simpson and Rocker, 2008). Its because of the fact that traditional approaches of healthcare to COPD is focused only on the pathophysiology underlying the disease that aimed to treat and prevent acute exacerbations not knowing the psychological impact that instantaneously follows the physical decline are the powerful forces in shaping patients’ experience with COPD (Simpson and Rocker, 2008). In patients with advancing COPD, the dominant role and psychosocial impact on the quality of life requires one to think twice on efficient approach to effectively address the issue of care (Simpson and Rocker, 2008).
In COPD, a holistic approach must be practised, and to achieve this, an individual nursing care plan of treatment must be carried out. These include lifestyle modification such as cessation of smoking, pulmonary status optimisation by means of pharmacotherapy and exercise as well as nutritional and metabolic intervention strategies (van der Valk, 2004).