This paper will discuss four ways human physiology responds to athletic training from the perspective of musculoskeletal system, body composition, thermoregulatory system and cardiovascular system and explain physiological mechanisms.

Exercise programs promote muscle development, which takes place in conjunction with body fat reduction resulting from the difference between the intake and output of energy. In the initial stages of weight reduction, the body fat available for the body to use as fuel is often counteracted as denser muscle tissues are gained. The adenosine triphosphate chemical (ATP) facilitates muscle contraction and after several repetitions, ATP levels are depleted. Glycogen is initially burnt to replenish the level and the longer exercise takes, the more fat is burnt, like in short and high-intensity exercises (Curtin & Woledge 583). If the exercises are longer, the muscles release more lactic acid, which could eventually lead to muscle fatigue and cramping. However, flexibility and stretching exercises create greater motion range in joints subjected to the associated stresses. The result is that when the joints gain the ability to move with more dynamism, there is a notable increase in stability, power and speed in the motions of the related structure. This greatly reduces chances of injury or being overstressed.

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Body composition accounts for the most visible physiological change in response to athletic training. The human body is constructed from skeletal bone, organs, lean muscle mass and body fat. Although training does not alter their dimensions, specialized exercise reduces body fat percentage while increasing the mass of lean muscle. Processed triglycerides are stored in the form of body fat in the adipose tissues for indefinite periods.

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