This accounts for the differences in the overall stability constants between the Cu2+/NH3 and Cu2+/en systems.
The crystal field splitting is the division in energy between two arrays of d orbitals due to uneven repulsion of the d electrons of the metal by the negative charges, which are set octahedrally around the innermost metal ion (Reger, Goode & Ball 2009). Therefore, the energy of the d orbitals augments as the negative charges approach the metal ion (Crystal field theory: energy level splitting n.d.).
4. The magnetic moment of [Mn(H2O)6]2+ is 5.9 BM while the magnetic moment of [Mn(CN)6]4- is 1.7 BM because [Mn(H2O)6]2+ contains more unpaired electrons compared to [Mn(CN)6]4-. According to Khandelwal, the magnetic moment of a substance increases with the increase in the number of unpaired electrons (n.d.).
5. The limitations of the Crystal Field Theory as applied to transition metal complexes are that it ignores the central metal atom and the ligands. The Crystal field Theory views ligands as point charges and does not account for chemical bonds.
The Molecular Orbital Theory is a more useful theory because it explains atoms in terms of orbitals and the arrangement of electrons in the orbitals (electron configuration). This helps in accounting for chemical bonds as a result of transfer or sharing of electrons. It takes into account the ionic and covalent involvements in the formation of complexes.
The Latimer diagram indicates the standard reduction potential for changes between each of the oxidation states of an element in order, starting with the highest oxidation state on the left and the lowest oxidation state on the right (Chandra 2006).
The first step involves identifying the element with the highest oxidation state and writing it down