Organisms & Diseases.

This applies to both humans and animals.

The first case of Ebola occurred in 1976. It happened through two simultaneous outbreaks, in Yambuku, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Nzara, Sudan. In DRC, it occurred in a village near Ebola River. This became the name of the disease. There are five known species of the Ebola virus: Reston, Sudan, Bundibugyo, Ivory Coast and Zaire (W.H.O 12).

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Ebola spreads among human population through close contact with secretions, blood, bodily fluids from infected animals and organs (W.H.O 12). Burial ceremonies that involve direct contact with the dead person play an important role in the spread of the disease. Infected semen can also transmit the disease for up to seven weeks after recovery. In Africa, infection spreads through handling of fruit bats, chimpanzees, monkeys and porcupines.

The prevalence rate of Ebola is only monitored in a few countries: Uganda, Gabon, Sudan and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Last year there was 1 case in Uganda having led to one death. In 2008, there were 44% fatalities out of 32 reported cases in DRC and in 2007 there were 25% fatalities out of the 149 reported cases in Uganda (W.H.O 12). The population increase and poverty have significantly contributed to the spread of this disease. This spread frequently occurs through retrogressive traditions like contact with deceased persons, irresponsible sexual behavior and poor sanitation. Most of the human-animal’s transmissions reflect the human wildlife conflict arising from population surge and detrimental policies of settlement and population control (W.H.O (a) 12).

Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by protozoa of Leishmania genus. This is a parasitic protozoon. It happens when humans are bitten by phlebotomine sand flies. These flies breed in caves, forests, and brick houses. It is in these places that they infect human beings

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