e leaders have perfected the art of using all manner of illegal tactics to remain in power such as vote rigging, detaining opposition leaders and altering the constitution. Some African leaders have objected the idea of multi-party democracy thus anybody seeking a political leadership opportunity should do so through one party which is controlled the by the incumbent president. The parliamentary systems are ineffective and weak since they are controlled by the executive. The main duty of the legislature is to oversee the smooth running and implementation of government policies but African governments have failed in this duty. The parliamentary systems is misused by the executive to rubber stamp the decisions of the executive while the judiciary lacks the independence to protect the constitution and civil rights.
A flawed electioneering system and ethnic based politics will continue to precipitate political conflicts unless policy changes are implemented. Though the international community is greatly supporting Africa nations to implement full democratic and market-based economies, dictatorial leadership, unfair elections, diseases and unequal distribution of resources have hindered all the opportunities of ensuring democracy in several African countries. Natural resources like copper, gold and oil mining continue to be trafficked to foreign countries by corrupt leaders thus leading to low economic development of these conflicts. Unfair distribution of resources and underdevelopment of some parts of the countries, especially areas occupied by the marginalized ethnic communities is currently fueling ethnic-based conflicts for power and natural resources. Some leaders are busy utilizing the natural resources to fuel ethnic tensions and conflicts in order to remain in power.
There are numerous challenges that have hindered entrenchment of liberal democracy in Africa.