by different researchers have shown the evidence that the extrinsic rewards could negatively harm the intrinsic motivation of the employees (Deci and Ryan, 1985). The studies were conducted on a set of professionals who were clearly mentioned of the nature of reward that has been instituted for a brief period. The results obtained after withdrawing the rewards showed a sharp reduction in the productivity in those rewarded from those who were not rewarded. Thus the managers, who often feel that the higher the incentives could always ensure higher performance often, fail to realize the negative impact it could cause to the system when such schemes are forced to be withdrawn. This is common with the prevailing business situations across the globe, where poor business environment forces the managers to propose the cost reduction measures. One such step would be lowering of the existing incentive schemes which would lead to lowering of the productivity that were available much before this reductive proposals as per the existing theories of motivation. (Word count: 210)
Every organization in its management practice has powers which are both visible and invisible. The powers that are present based on the hierarchy of practice which defines the functional space and the linkages in the responsibilities in the organizational framework are the common visible powers centers in any establishment. The invisible power centers that those which are not guided by the direct business objectives but rather from the cultural or ethical compulsions that forces every employees to take a certain decision making in their domain of activity. And the exact proportion of the division of each type of powers in each organization cannot be specified in exact quantitative terms. The visible powers are more necessary for the quantitative outputs of the job and identifying the work efficiency of every employee.