For instance, a cigarette produces char due to the chemical contents, but the combustion is influenced by physical factors. This implies that the physical elements spur the chemical reactions through the oxidation process that attack the cigarette contents.
The article also tackles the post-initiation features of smoldering. This comprises of various smoldering models, such as one and two-dimensional smolder models. However, oxygen controls the entire combustion process and this depends on the rate and degree of the reaction. One-dimensional smolder spreads based on the oxygen diffusion, either upwards or outwards from the layer of fuel particles (Ohlemiller 2-220). This model is restricted by reverse and forward propagation approaches. The combustion reaction is sometimes instigated by self-sustained processes. In this regard, self-sustained smolder propagation is prevalent by the oxidation kinetics of a solid. Reverse propagation is when oxygen diffuses to the reaction region from the external surface of the fuel layer.