The Student Book Exchange (SBE)

A student organization, the Club For Over-Achievers (CFOA), has an opportunity to start a student book exchange at this university. Up to this point, there have been a few informal discussions between other members of CFOA, university administration, and the bookstore. From those discussions, the following requirements have been put together.

Note that this textual specification mixes together both functional and nonfunctional requirements. Moreover, it does not explicitly distinguish between those tasks and functionalities that are within the information (i.e. computerized) system boundary and those that fall outside this boundary. In other words, the SBE system description includes both functionalities that can be computerized (by introducing a software-based information system) and functionalities that will always be performed by humans. You may decide to produce a specification for the whole business model (i.e. for both the computerized AND the non-computerized functionalities of the SBE system. In this case, you will denote the computerized system as a subsystem of the whole SBE system. Such subsystem will have to be explicitly contained within suitable boundaries in the UML use case diagram of the whole SBE system boundary. Alternatively, you may decide to produce a specification for the sole computerized (i.e. software based) functionalities of the SBE system. In this case, all the non-automated functionalities described below will have to be left out of your use case specification. In both cases, you must explicitly state whether you are describing the whole SBE system or just its software-based part.

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General Requirements

The following general requirements are at the core of the CFOA operations. All books will be sold on a consignment basis. This means that CFOA will not actually buy used books from students to resell; it will simply act as an agent to bring buyers and sellers together. CFOA will charge a consignment fee based on a percentage of the sales price.

CFOA will take possession of books to be sold. It is expected that most students will choose to place their books on consignment at the end of the semester, and CFOA will hold the books until the following semester, when most students buy their books.

No one is sure how many students will choose to use the bookstore, but the book exchange should be able to handle several thousand books each semester.

Sellers of books will be able to determine the sales price for books they want to sell.

Sellers will receive a copy of a contract that lists the book, the sales price, consignment fee, and terms for returning the book or their receipt of a check.

Sellers may ask for and receive a check for any book that has been sold. That means that each seller may receive multiple checks.

After a specified time (e.g., three weeks after classes start), all sellers of unsold books must be notified that their book was not sold. They then have a period of time in which to pick up their books, after which CFOA may sell the book to a book distributor.

CFOA will obtain from the university a copy of all book titles that will be required for courses the following semester. This list will include the book title, authors, edition, course title and number, and professor name.

General description of the “turn-in” and sales process

The following processes are used to obtain books for consignment.

The seller will take his/her books to the book exchange location. There s/he will receive a copy of a blank contract to be filled out – one for each book. Note that the contract includes the sales price for the book.

From that point on, each book must be tracked so that CFOA can tell which sellers’ books have been sold. It is not clear at this time how this tracking should be done, but the sales price for each book needs to be marked on the book.

Books will be stored until the beginning of the following semester, at which time the book exchange will be open to buyers.

Buyers will enter the book exchange area and be able to browse the book stacks (organized by course) to choose which books they would like to buy. They will then take their chosen books to a checkout area. Upon checkout, the book price should be verified against the price the seller agreed to on the contract.

The total sales amount must be totaled, and sales tax calculated. A receipt must be provided to the buyer.

Once a book is sold, record of the sale and when the sale occurred must be made so that the seller can receive her/his money.

If the book is not sold three weeks after the start of the semester, the seller must be notified by mail so that s/he can come and pick up her/his book. If the book is not claimed within 30 days after notification, the book may be sold to a distributor.

Minimum information

To allow for adequate business decision-making, controls, and accountability, the following information must be available at a minimum.

During the turn-in (end of semester) period, a report showing how many books were received, and the total sales value of those books must be available at the end of each business day.

During the sales (beginning of semester) period, total receipts from buyers must be accounted for daily.

During the sales period, a record of each check made out to a seller and the total amount disbursed each day should be available in a report.

Current inventory list – shows books, seller, and price – updated at least daily. This should allow anyone to look up a book by title or by course.

Checks written to sellers must be linked to the books that were sold. In other words, a record of a check should include reference to record of the books that were sold.

Book Exchanges

Overview of Consignment Process

The consignment process will consist of two main stations. Station A will be manned with two to three personnel (Clerk A). Station B will be manned by one to two personnel (Clerk B).

A supervisor will oversee the operations of the Exchange. The supervisor will also be available at the front of the process to inform students of the Exchange’s purpose and general procedures.

This will allow clerks A and B to concentrate on their specific duties in an effort to consign books as quickly and efficiently as possible.

Clerk A completes the following steps:

Verify book(s) against valid book list.

Fill out book information for valid books (book number, course).


Help student determine selling price.

Instruct student to fill out mailing address and sign contract and proceed to Clerk B.

Clerk B completes the following steps:

Sign contract.

Separate contract into its three parts.

Place top copy (white) of the completed contract in book

Give bottom copy (pink) of the completed contract to student.

Give additional information sheet to student. Emphasize to the student that the copy of the contract must be kept in order to pick up payment or any unsold book.

Place price and contract number stickers on the bottom of the book’s binding (contract number should be above selling price).

Place middle copy (yellow) of the completed contract aside for data entry.

More specific details

Clerk A: A student will bring one or multiple book(s) to be consigned. Clerk A will look up each of the student’s books (by author) to determine if it is listed in the valid book list. Clerk A will fill out the book information (one contract per book) for the number of valid books that the student has and will also help the student determine a reasonable selling price.

Clerk A will also make sure that the student understands exactly what dollar amount he/she will receive for his/her book if it is sold. This amount will be calculated as 90% of the selling price (the 10% is the Exchange’s commission) and will be written in the “Your Profit” blank.

Clerk A will then instruct the student to proceed to another table to fill out his/her mailing address information as well as read the terms of the contract.

Important Time Saver: If the student has multiple contracts, the student only need fill out his/her name, address, city, state, and zip on one contract. On the others, he/she need only write in his/her last and first name. This will reduce the student’s time of filling out forms.

Clerk B: Clerk B will make sure that the student has signed each contract and correctly filled in the mailing address section. Clerk B will then sign and separate the contract into its three parts.

The bottom copy (pink) will be given to the student.

The top (white) copy will be taped to the inside cover of the book.

The middle copy (yellow) will be filed for later batch data entry into the computer database.

As indicated above, if the student has multiple books, the student need only fill out the top information box in its entirety once. On the rest of the contracts, the student need only fill out his/her last and first name. Clerk B will staple all the yellow copies together (with the one that has the complete information on the top) and place these in the file for later data entry into the computer database.

Before the student leaves with the completed contract for each consigned book, Clerk B will give the student an information sheet that indicates the selling times and where & when checks and unsold books can be picked up.

After the student leaves, Clerk B will write the contract number and selling price on small stickers (contract number on one, and selling price on another) and place these stickers on the bottom of the book’s binding. Contract number should be placed above selling price.

Sales Process

There will be two main functions in the sales process. Clerk A will retrieve books and clerk B will record the sale and collect payment.

A student will hand his/her class list to clerk A. The clerk will then look at an inventory listing of books to determine if it is in inventory. The inventory list will be printed out at the close of the consignment process and will be updated by batches after each day of the selling process.

Although the inventory list will become outdated very quickly during the selling process, its primary purpose is to give the clerk an ability to check a list at the counter without going to check the physical inventory for books that the Exchange absolutely does not have. During heavy selling times, the inventory list will be updated periodically throughout the day. During light selling times, the inventory list will only be updated nightly. Clerk A will then retrieve the books that the student needs from the physical inventory stacks.

Books will be sold on a Low Cost First Out (LCFO) basis. Books with the same price will be sold based on lowest contract number, that is, the book that was consigned first. The clerk will quickly scan the price stickers on the books binding and grab the appropriate book. The clerk will show the student and say “this is the book with the lowest price, will this be ok?” After retrieving all the books for the student and pending student approval of each book on his/her class list, the clerk will then instruct the student to proceed to the cash register.

Clerk B, who will operate the cash register, will remove the white copy of the contract from the inside of the book(s), stamp the books with a special “Book Exchange” stamp with blanks for selling price and sold date, and enter in the selling price and sold date. The clerk will total the sale, adding a 5% state of Idaho tax on the total sales amount, and collect the money from the student. The register will print a sales receipt for the student and a copy for the Exchange. The white copy of the contracts will be placed in a file for later batch data entry.


List the functional requirements and non-functional requirements for SBE’s system. [20 marks]

Construct use-case diagrams for the scenarios given in the above case. [25marks]

Construct dataflow diagrams to capture the processes outlined in the above case. [25 marks]


2.  Hospital Appointment Reservation SystemLamptey Memorial Hospital is a distinguished medical group practice of approximately 100 doctors and it is located in a major urban area. Its primary service is an “out-patient” or ambulatory practice which is, in effect, a collection of doctors’ offices together with the necessary facilities to perform medical tests such as x-rays and chemical analysis of body fluids.The area to be investigated at the hospital was that of reserving time for patients. This function is primarily performed by a department called the Central Appointment Office.In the Central Appointment Office, a group of 25 secretaries schedules appointments for the hospital’s physicians and for a few major medical tests. Each doctor’s available time, divided into 15-minute periods, is shown on a card for each day—with the cards for the next three months available to the appointment personnel at any one time.Depending on the circumstances of a patient’s appointment request, an appointment secretary decides to which physicians and for which tests the patient should be scheduled. An attempt is made to schedule patients as fully as possible to all physicians whom the secretaries believe the patient should see. The choice of departments and doctors for which a patient is scheduled is dictated by a set of rules developed by hospital medical management.The scheduling of tests by the Central Appointment Office (CAO) is quite limited. In general, the CAO schedules only a half dozen, major, time-consuming tests, such as electrocardiograms, electroencephalograms, and intravenous pyelograms. The scheduling of doctors is, however, extensive. The CAO’s task is more difficult than merely to schedule patients to the correct one or more of the 12 major departments (e.g., general surgery, neurosurgery, urology, internal medicine, etc.). An attempt is also made to schedule the patient to the appropriate sub-specialty within a department (for Instance within internal medicine, to sub-specialties such as cardiac, vascular, etc.). Furthermore, an effort is made to steer specific patients to particular physician sub-sub-specialists who are interested and expert in one disease or particular area (i.e., diabetes, liver malfunction, etc.).In all cases, the appointment secretary must select from an inventory of available doctor and test time a feasible and hopefully optimal series of appointments for a patient. The hospital’s management originally viewed the process as akin to the airlines reservation process, and the initial charge to the systems effort was in these terms.Business rulesThe business rules for patients’ scheduling are as follows:1. If a patient desires a complete medical examination, no attempt whatsoever is made by the schedulers to determine the patient’s condition for scheduling purposes. The patient is merely given the first opening available for a physical examination with any member of the staff who performs complete physical examinations.2. No attempt is made by the clerical scheduling personnel to develop a full routing for the patient. Only the first appointment is scheduled in the manner noted above.3. Appointment time length is standardized. In most cases, complete physical examinations are assumed to take one hour. All other appointments are assumed to take 15 minutes.Given the above rules, therefore, the patient arrives at the hospital scheduled to see an initial physician. The remainder of the routing is performed by the first doctor whom the patient sees. The routing is done only after the patient has been given a complete physical examination by the doctor. As a result, the doctor is the scheduler. And the scheduling is done on the day that the patient arrives at the hospital. Since there is no need for one group of secretaries to have access to all the appointment cards (so that they can pre schedule patients to all necessary physicians), most appointment cards are kept in each physician’s location—on a decentralized basis.The Problem Each patient who enters the hospital’s facilities represents a unique problem and has a need to see a particular set of specialists and to utilize a specific set of test facilities. The problems of determining exactly which physicians and major tests should be scheduled, and in which order these should be scheduled, appears to be a relatively impossible task for a group of lay secretaries many without any medical experience whatsoever. Yet the secretaries were seen to make both the facility (doctor and/or tests) and ordering choices to build a schedule for each patient. The schedule should be “optimal” in terms of choosing the correct doctors and tests while also minimizing the patient’s time spent at the Medic Center in the diagnostic process.In making these choices, the appointment secretaries were seen to face a major dilemma which can be summarized as follows: On the one hand, if the secretary schedules the patient to see more doctors than he requires, there is a high probability that the first doctor to see the patient will cancel the excess appointments; and that the suddenly released (and therefore available doctor time) will not be used by other patients. There is no backlog of patients waiting to be moved up automatically in the queue for a doctor if another patient’s appointment is cancelled.On the other horn of the dilemma, if the patient is scheduled to see fewer doctors than necessary, it is quite possible that the additional doctors for whom the patient should have been scheduled will be booked completely on the day the patient enters the hospital. This may place a heavyburden on the patient. If the patient is from out of town, he may have to extend his stay in a hotel. If he is a local patient, he may have to make another trip to the hospital. REQUIRED:1a. Identify and explain the problems confronting the current system of patient appointment scheduling. [15 marks]1b. Create and explain a list of opportunities and objectives of the proposed solution/system. [10 marks]2. Construct activity diagrams, use-case diagrams and class diagrams for the proposed system. [25 marks each = 75 marks][TOTAL = 100 MARKS]

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