# ashworth college online exams

tial, survivorship, and reproduction.Question 16 of 205.0 PointsA group of subpopulations living in spatially isolated patches connected by exchange of individuals among patches is called a(n):A. micropopulation.B. megapopulation.C. isopopulation.D. metapopulation.Question 17 of 205.0 PointsWhich of the following indicates a population in decline?A. R0=6.01B. R0=0.601C. R0=0D. R0= – 0.601Question 18 of 205.0 PointsOut of 1 million eggs laid by a mackerel, more than 999,990 die during the first 70 days of life either as eggs, larvae, or juveniles. The mackerel has a __________ survivorship curve.A. Type IB. Type IIC. Type IIID. Type IVQuestion 19 of 205.0 PointsWhich of the following equations bests represents the per capita rate of increase?A. r = T/(ln R0)B. r = (ln R0)/TC. l = Nt/( Nt+1)D. l = (Nt+1)/NtQuestion 20 of 205.0 PointsType II survivorship curve indicates:A. low juvenile mortality and high mortality in older adults.B. high juvenile mortality and low mortality in older adults.C. low juvenile mortality and low mortality in older adults.D. equal chance of dying at any age.ashworth college SC260 online exam 4 latest 2014 jan.Part 1 of 1 – 100.0 PointsQuestion 1 of 205.0 PointsNt = N0 lt represents:A. annual growth rate.B. geometric population growth.C. exponential growth rate.D. logistic growth.Question 2 of 205.0 PointsAn annual plant when initially colonizing an area will probably demonstrate:A. annual growth rate.B. geometric population growth.C. exponential growth rate.D. logistic growth.Question 3 of 205.0 PointsThe exponential population growth equation can be used for:A. populations with overlapping generations.B. populations experiencing continuous growth.C. populations with nonpulsed reproduction.D. all of the populations listed above.Question 4 of 205.0 PointsDensity dependent factors include all of the following EXCEPT:A. competition.B. disease.C. predation.D. temperature.Question 5 of 205.0 PointsHuman populations are clumped on a large scale with the greatest concentration in:A. Africa.B. Asia.C. Europe.D. North America.Question 6 of 205.0 PointsIf the age distribution diagram is bottom heavy or pyramidal in shape, this indicates that the population is:A. stable.B. declining.C. growing slowly.D. growing rapidly.Question 7 of 205.0 PointsIf the age distribution diagram is bell shaped or the number of individual in each age class is evenly distributed, this indicates that the population is:A. stable.B. declining.C. growing slowly.D. growing rapidly.Question 8 of 205.0 PointsIf the age distribution diagram has the smallest concentration of individuals in the bottom portion or is considered to be an urn shape, this indicates that:A. the population is stable.B. the population is declining.C. the population is growing slowly.D. the population is growing rapidly.Question 9 of 205.0 PointsA polymorphic locus is one that:A. codes for more than one protein.B. codes for both protein and lipid.C. occurs in a population as more than one allele.D. occurs on more than one chromosome.Question 10 of 205.0 PointsThe number of eggs laid by a female is called her:A. fertility.B. gonadosomatic index.C. growth form.D. fecundity.Question 11 of 205.0 PointsA “forb” is a(n):A. fish species living in the open ocean.B. bird species having offspring independent at a young age.C. plant species with woody tissue.D. herbaceous, but non-graminoid, plant species.Question 12 of 205.0 PointsThe “K” in “K-selection” comes from the:A. ecologist who coined it, Astrid Kodric-Brown.B. shape of the age-vs.-mortality-rate plot for K-selected species.C. “K” in the logistic growth equation.D. Greek letter “kappa,” symbolizing fecundity.Question 13 of 205.0 PointsWhich of the following is NOT a characteristic favored by K-selection?A. Low intrinsic rate of increaseB. Late reproductionC. Many, small offspringD. Repeated bouts of reproductionQuestion 14 of 205.0 PointsWhich of the following environments for germinating seed is most likely to favor a plant species that makes many small seeds, compared to one that makes fewer larger seeds?A. Nutrient limitationB. Competition from established plantsC. ShadeD. DisturbanceQuestion 15 of 205.0 Points”Riparian” refers to plant communities occurring:A. in the tropics.B. at high altitudes.C. along the edges of deserts.D. in transitions between riverbanks and upland areas.Question 16 of 205.0 PointsThe study of the relationship between climate and the timing of ecological events is called:A. ecology.B. phenology.C. oenology.D. climatology.Question 17 of 205.0 Points__________ show more variation in life history traits than any other group.A. InsectsB. MammalsC. BirdsD. FishQuestion 18 of 205.0 PointsTurner and Trexler found a __________ relationship between egg size and __________ in the darter populations that live in rivers and streams of central North America.A. positive; gene flowB. positive; egg numberC. positive; female sizeD. negative; gene flowQuestion 19 of 205.0 PointsWestoby, Leishman, and Lord found that on average, __________ produce the largest seeds.A. forbsB. woody plantsC. climbing plants and vinesD. graminoidsQuestion 20 of 205.0 PointsWhich of the following are characteristics favored by K selection?A. Rapid developmentB. Small body sizeC. IteroparityD. High rmaxashworth college SC260 online exam 5 latest 2014 jan.Part 1 of 1 – 100.0
Points

Question 1 of 20
5.0 Points
Gause’s “competitive exclusion principle” states
that:
A. when two species
occur together, competition is always prevented by some behavioral adjustment.
B. no two species
can coexist indefinitely.
C. no two competing
species can coexist indefinitely.
D. no two species
with identical niches can coexist indefinitely.

Question 2 of 20
5.0 Points
In the Lotka-Volterra competition equations, if a21 > 1,
then:
A. the population
growth rate of species 2 is reduced more by each individual of species 1 than
by each individual of species 2.
B. the population
growth rate of species 2 is reduced more by each individual of species 2 than
by each individual of species 1.
C. the population
growth rate of species 2 is reduced equally by individuals of either species 1
or species 2.
D. we would also
have to know the value of K2 to decide which of the above is true.

Question 3 of 20
5.0 Points
Analysis of the Lotka-Volterra competition model implies
that two competitors can coexist only when:
A. interspecific
competition is stronger than intraspecific competition.
B. intraspecific
competition is stronger than interspecific competition.
C. intraspecific and
interspecific competition are equally strong.
D. predation or
parasitism is stronger than interspecific competition.

Question 4 of 20
5.0 Points
Two species occurring together in the same place are said to
be:
A. competitors.
B. precocial.
C. mutualists.
D. sympatric.

Question 5 of 20
5.0 Points
The __________ niche defines the physical conditions under
which a species might live, in the absence of interaction with other species.
A. functional
B. realized
C. principle
D. fundamental

Question 6 of 20
5.0 Points
The process of evolution toward niche divergence in the face
of competition is called:
A. niche
displacement.
B. niche evolution.
C. character
displacement.
D. character evolution.

Question 7 of 20
5.0 Points
A species feeding on the tissue of its host, while not
killing it directly, is a:
A. predator.
B. parasite.
C. parasitoid.
D. cannibal.

Question 8 of 20
5.0 Points
A “negatively phototaxic” amphipod will swim:
A. away from
parasitic worms.
B. towards parasitic
worms.
C. away from
competing amphipods.
D. away from light.

Question 9 of 20
5.0 Points
The presence of parasitic protozoa in a culture of competing
Tribolium castaneum and T. confusum:
A. increases the
likelihood of coexistence.
B. decreases the
likelihood of coexistence.
C. has no effect on
the outcome of competition.
D. can reverse the
outcome of competition.

Question 10 of 20
5.0 Points
The infestation of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia) in
Australia was controlled by the release of a moth, Cactoblastis, which impacts
cactus populations because it:
A. consumes cactus
seeds.
B. consumes cactus
C. introduces, as it
attacks, fungi and bacteria that attack cactus pads.
D. both consumes
cactus pads and introduces, as it attacks, fungi and bacteria that attack

Question 11 of 20
5.0 Points
The standard error of the mean is equal to:
A. the sample variance
divided by the sample size.
B. the sample
variance divided by the square root of the sample size.
C. the sample
standard deviation divided by the square root of the sample size.
D. twice the square
root of the sample size.

Question 12 of 20
5.0 Points
Gause’s experiments with Paramecium and Didinium showed:
A. extinction of the
predator, followed by extinction of the prey, in all habitats.
B. coexistence of
predator and prey with oscillating population sizes, but only in the presence
of refuges and predator reservoirs.
C. coexistence of
predator and prey, but with oscillating population sizes, in all habitats.
D. coexistence of
predator and prey at fairly constant population sizes, but only in the presence
of refuges and predator reservoirs.

Question 13 of 20
5.0 Points
Periodical cicadas spend 13 or 17 years:
A. feeding in tree
B. feeding on tree
laying eggs.
D. in a resistant,
resting egg before hatching as larvae.

Question 14 of 20
5.0 Points
Schistosoma flukes attack their human hosts when those
humans:
A. consume infected
freshwater snails.
B. consume infected
fish.
C. consume plant
tissue bearing spores.
D. bathe in water
containing infective cercariae.

Question 15 of 20
5.0 Points
Use of Procambarus crayfish to combat schistosomiasis in
Africa:
A. is likely to be
effective, and poses no important ecological risks.
B. is likely to be
effective, but poses ecological risks because Procambarus is not native to
Africa.
C. is unlikely to be
effective, because the crayfish seem to eat infected snails only in the
laboratory.
D. is unlikely to be
effective, because the crayfish are just as suitable as hosts for the parasite
as were the snails.

Question 16 of 20
5.0 Points
An interaction between individuals of different species that
benefit both partners is called:
A. commensalism.
B. predation.
C. exploitation.
D. mutualism.

Question 17 of 20
5.0 Points
__________ mutualism describes a relationship where species
are so dependent on their mutualistic relationship they cannot live in its
absence.
A. Obligate
B. Critical
C. Facultative
D. Dispensable

Question 18 of 20
5.0 Points
Mycorrhizal fungi (directly) help their plant partners
acquire:
A. sugars.
B. sunlight.
C. seed dispersal.
D. soil nutrients.

Question 19 of 20
5.0 Points
Ant-acacia trees provide several services to their
mutualistic ant partners. These include:
A. enlarged thorns
to host ant colonies.
B. nectar from
foliar nectaries.
C. nectar from
floral nectaries.
D. both enlarged
thorns to host ant colonies and nectar from foliar nectaries.

Question 20 of 20
5.0 Points
The major benefit obtained by aspen sunflower, Helianthella
quinquenervis, from its ant mutualists is:
A. improved
attraction of pollinators.
B. reduced loss of
leaf tissue to herbivorous insects.
C. more efficient
extraction of soil nutrients.
D. reduced losses of
seeds to seed predators. ashworth college SC260 online exam 6 latest 2014 jan..784px;”=””>Part 1 of 1 – 100.0 PointsQuestion 1 of 205.0 PointsJoseph Connell’s “intermediate disturbance hypothesis” proposes that:A. species diversity is highest at intermediate frequencies of disturbance.B. species diversity is lowest at intermediate frequencies of disturbance.C. population growth rates are highest at intermediate frequencies of disturbance.D. competitive exclusion is fastest at intermediate levels of disturbance.Question 2 of 205.0 PointsA “community” is defined as:A. a group of organisms that all make their living in a similar way.B. a group of individuals of a single species inhabiting a defined area.C. the portion of a defined area that supports life.D. an association of interacting species inhabiting a defined area.Question 3 of 205.0 PointsIn most ecological communities:A. most species are extremely rare.B. few species are very abundant.C. most species are moderately abundant.D. both few species are very abundant, and most species are moderately abundant.Question 4 of 205.0 PointsRobert MacArthur’s study of forest warblers suggested that:A. fewer warbler species can survive in more complex habitats.B. warbler species diversity increases with habitat complexity.C. warbler species diversity decreases with habitat complexity.D. most warblers have rather similar foraging niches.Question 5 of 205.0 PointsNiches of single-celled algae, such as diatoms, seem most often to be distinguished by their requirements for:A. different combinations of inorganic nutrients.B. different light environments.C. different water-flow environments.D. different water temperatures.Question 6 of 205.0 PointsIn the Amazon forest, slight changes in soil properties tend to be correlated with:A. similar, slight differences in plant communities.B. no detectable differences in plant communities.C. dramatic differences in plant communities.D. dramatic differences in plant communities only if the soil property in question is moisture.Question 7 of 205.0 PointsIn Robert Paine’s studies of the Washington intertidal community, which organism proved to be a keystone species?A. The whelk ThaisB. Acorn barnaclesC. ChitonsD. The starfish PisasterQuestion 8 of 205.0 PointsIn the Washington intertidal community studied by Robert Paine, the most important limiting resource is:A. space.B. light.C. plankton.D. nitrogen.Question 9 of 205.0 PointsWe can infer a statistically significant difference between two population means when:A. our estimates of the two means are different.B. the variances of the two means do not overlap.C. the standard deviations of the two means do not overlap.D. the 95% confidence intervals for the two means do not overlap.Question 10 of 205.0 PointsWeaver ants provide effective protection of citrus trees because they:A. remove harmful soft-scale insects (mealybugs).B. remove all plant-feeding insects.C. cultivate soft-scale insects, but do not allow them to feed on the trees.D. cultivate soft-scale insects, but still allow them to be attacked by parasitoids and predators.Question 11 of 205.0 PointsThe Nile perch population explosion has been accompanied by:A. a decrease in the dissolved oxygen in the shallowest portions of Lake Victoria.B. a decrease in the dissolved oxygen in the deepest portions of Lake Victoria.C. an increase in the dissolved oxygen in the deepest portions of Lake Victoria.D. an increase in the dissolved oxygen in the shallowest portions of Lake Victoria.Question 12 of 205.0 PointsBased on studies by Jane Lubchenko, what influence does the population density of the herbivorous intertidal snail, Littorina littorea, have on the number of algal species?A. As snail density increases from low to medium, the number of algal species increases.B. As snail density increases from medium to high, the number of algal species increases.C. As snail density increases from medium to high, the number of algal species decreases.D. Both as snail density increases from low to medium the number of algal species increases and as snail density increases from medium to high, the number of algal species decreases.Question 13 of 205.0 PointsTeja Tscharntke simplified the food web associated with the wetland reed Phragmites australis by dividing the species into the following major trophic levels?A. Plant, herbivore, piscivore, and granivoreB. Herbivore, carnivore, detritivore, and consumerC. Herbivore, parasite, carnivore, and detritivoreD. Plant, herbivore, parasite, and carnivoreQuestion 14 of 205.0 PointsNet primary productivity is the primary productivity of an ecosystem, after subtracting energy lost in:A. dead plant tissues.B. inedible plant tissues.C. respiration by primary producers.D. respiration by primary consumers.Question 15 of 205.0 Points”Actual evapotranspiration” for an ecosystem refers to the amount of water that:A. is taken up from soils by plant roots.B. evaporates from soils.C. is transpired by plants.D. evaporates from soils plus the amount transpired by plants.Question 16 of 205.0 PointsLeibig’s “Law of the Minimum” stated that:A. the lowest primary productivity occurs in the coldest ecosystems.B. primary productivity is typically controlled entirely by climate.C. primary productivity is typically controlled by both climate and soil nutrients.D. a single soil nutrient typically limits primary productivity.Question 17 of 205.0 PointsExperimental fertilizations in the Baltic Sea suggest that primary productivity there is normally limited by:A. phosphorus.B. nitrogen.C. iron.D. potassium.Question 18 of 205.0 PointsThe “trophic cascade hypothesis” emphasizes the role of:A. nutrients in controlling primary productivity.B. nutrients in controlling primary consumption.C. grazing by herbivores in controlling primary productivity.D. grazing by herbivores in controlling ecosystem nutrient levels.Question 19 of 205.0 PointsIn Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, the largest “standing stock” of energy is represented by biomass of:A. living plant tissues.B. dead plant tissues.C. invertebrate herbivores.D. vertebrate herbivores.Question 20 of 205.0 PointsAn increase about 1,000 years ago in 13C content of human collagen from archeological sites in eastern North America probably records:A. replacement of vegetables and grains in the diet by meat.B. replacement of corn by beans and squash in the diet.C. increasing consumption of corn.D. increasing levels of 13C in soils.ashworth college SC260 online exam 7 latest 2014 jan.Part 1 of 1 – 100.0 PointsQuestion 1 of 205.0 PointsThe largest reservoir of phosphorus in most ecosystems is phosphorus:A. in the atmosphere.B. dissolved in water.C. in rocks and sediments.D. bound in animal tissues.Question 2 of 205.0 Points”Nitrogen fixation” refers to the conversion of:A. carbon compounds to nitrogen compounds.B. nitrogen gas (N2) to ammonia (NH2).C. ammonia (NH3) to nitrogen gas (N2).D. ammonium (NH4+) to nitrate (NO3-).Question 3 of 205.0 Points”Nitrification” is the conversion of:A. carbon compounds to nitrogen compounds.B. nitrogen gas (N2) to ammonia (NH2).C. ammonia (NH3) to nitrogen gas (N2).D. ammonium (NH4+) to nitrate (NO3-).Question 4 of 205.0 PointsA major perturbation of the carbon cycle by human activity is associated with:A. release of carbon from carbonate rocks.B. release of carbon from fossil fuel deposits.C. removal of carbon from the atmosphere in the industrial production of fertilizers.D. accelerated removal of carbon from the atmosphere by forests.Question 5 of 205.0 PointsIn aquatic ecosystems, leaves with high lignin content decompose:A. rapidly because lignin is a nutrient-rich compound.B. rapidly because lignin enhances colonization by decomposing fungi.C. slowly because lignin reduces colonization by decomposing fungi.D. slowly because lignin is a carbon-poor compound.Question 6 of 205.0 PointsIn aquatic ecosystems, the major agents of decomposition are:A. aquatic fungi.B. bacteria.C. algae.D. detritivorous fish.Question 7 of 205.0 PointsClearcutting at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest sharply:A. increased export of nitrate (NO3-) in stream water.B. decreased export of nitrate (NO3-) in
stream water.C. increased rates of denitrification in soils.D. decreased deposition of ammonia (NH3) from the atmosphere.Question 8 of 205.0 PointsIn Judy Meyer and Gene Likens’ study of phosphorus in Bear Brook:A. most phosphorus inputs occurred during spring snowmelt.B. phosphorus inputs were nearly constant over the year.C. most phosphorus losses occurred during autumn leaf fall.D. most phosphorus losses occurred during storms and snowmelt.Question 9 of 205.0 PointsFungi and bacteria release nitrogen stored in dead tissue through a decomposition process called:A. nitrogen fixation.B. ammonification.C. denitrification.D. nitrification.Question 10 of 205.0 PointsNitrate is converted to molecular nitrogen, N2, in a process called:A. nitrogen fixation.B. ammonification.C. denitrification.D. nitrification.Question 11 of 205.0 PointsIn stream ecosystems, nutrient retentiveness is:A. not related to spiraling length.B. positively related to spiraling length.C. inversely related to spiraling length.D. a logarithmic function of spiraling length.Question 12 of 205.0 Points”Primary” succession is succession that:A. involves establishment of primary producers where there were none.B. leads to establishment of a climax community dominated by primary producers.C. occurs on newly exposed geologic substrates, not organic soil.D. occurs where organic soils have been exposed but not destroyed by disturbance.Question 13 of 205.0 PointsThe pioneer species at Glacier Bay, Alaska include:A. mosses.B. Dryas.C. alders.D. horsetails.Question 14 of 205.0 PointsDuring primary succession at Glacier Bay, overall plant species diversity:A. first increases rapidly, then levels off.B. increases steadily throughout succession.C. increases slowly at first, then more rapidly after a few hundred years.D. peaks at intermediate successional stages.Question 15 of 205.0 PointsHow does canopy shading influence succession of pines and deciduous trees in the Piedmont of North Carolina?A. Canopy shading by deciduous trees is required for growth of pines.B. Canopy shading by deciduous trees prevents establishment of pines until late in succession.C. Canopy shading by deciduous trees prevents persistence of pines in late successional stages.D. Canopy shading by pines prevents establishment of deciduous trees.Question 16 of 205.0 PointsDuring succession in Arizona streams, nitrogen retention:A. increases at first, but then declines late in succession.B. increases steadily through succession.C. increases slowly at first, but then rapidly late in succession.D. increases rapidly at first, then plateaus late in succession.Question 17 of 205.0 PointsAccording to the “facilitation” hypothesis, pioneer species modify the environment in ways that:A. make it more suitable for their own survival, and less suitable for other species.B. make it less suitable for their own survival, but more suitable for survival of other pioneer species.C. make it less suitable for their own survival, but more suitable for survival of late-successional species.D. make it less suitable for survival of all species.Question 18 of 205.0 PointsAccording to the “inhibition” hypothesis, pioneer species modify the environment in ways that:A. make it less suitable for other species.B. make it less suitable for their own survival, but more suitable for survival of other pioneer species.C. make it less suitable for their own survival, but more suitable for survival of late-successional species.D. make it more suitable for survival of all species.Question 19 of 205.0 PointsThe change in plant, animal, and microbial communities in an area following disturbance or the creation of new substrate is called:A. progression.B. succession.C. replacement.D. colonizationQuestion 20 of 205.0 PointsAccording to the tolerance model of succession:A. early successional species modify the environment making it less suitable for the establishment by all species.B. early successional species modify the environment making it less suitable for early successional species, but neither less nor more favorable for late successional species.C. early successional species modify the environment making it less suitable for early successional species, but more suitable for late successional species.D. only early successional species can establish as succession begins.

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