Final Project – Assessment of the Coastal Ogeechee Watershed

Assessment of the Coastal Ogeechee WatershedImage: The Coastal Ogeechee Watershed (Source:, 2009)Presented byAn APUS StudentAugust, 2009To Dr. Carol Pollio&AMERICAN PUBLIC UNIVERSITY SYSTEMPursuant to Completion ofMASTER OF ARTS IN ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY AND MANAGEMENTAMERICAN PUBLIC UNIVERSITYCharles Town, West VirginiaDEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC SAFETY AND NATIONAL SECURITYTable of ContentsSection 1The Coastal Ogeechee Watershed TodaySection 2Ogeechee Coastal Watershed Resources2.1 Freshwater Wetlands2.2 Estuarine Areas2.3 Barrier Islands and Marine EcosystemsSection 3Coastal Ogeechee Watershed Stresses3.1 Agricultural3.1.1 Rates of Consumption3.1.2 Agricultural Run­off3.2 Urban Development and Stormwater Runoff3.2.1 Landscape Development3.2.2 Stormwater Run­off3.2.2.1 Peak Runoff Volume3.2.2.2 Stormwater Quality3.3 Industrial Pollution3.4 Regional StressSection 4Discussion of Watershed Issues4.1 Stakeholder Representation4.2 Regional GrowthSection 5Recommendations5.1 Addressing Pollutant Sources5.1.1 Agricultural Runoff5.1.2 Stormwater Management5.2 Collaborative ManagementSection 6ConclusionMapCited ReferencesSection 1: The Coastal Ogeechee Watershed TodayThe Coastal Ogeechee Watershed is a large dynamic water resource that traverses avariety of ecosystems and resource allocations. Located in southeast Georgia, the CoastalOgeechee Watershed encompasses segments of 6 Georgia counties. Coastal Ogeecheeprovides water resources for the cities of Savannah, Thunderbolt, Tybee Island, and southto Darien GA. This watershed covers over 1 million acres, roughly a quarter of thisacreage (248,767 acres) is open water, the next largest coverage areas are evergreenforest (236,778) and salt based wetlands (195, 510) (NARSAL, 2005). Located at themouth of the 245 mile long Ogeechee River the Coastal Ogeechee Watershed (COW) andthe coastal marshlands and estuaries within it are being affected not only by products andactivities of the local population but also by activities and conditions up stream along theentire Ogeechee River Basin. Six water bodies within this watershed have been listed asimpaired between 2000 and 2006. These testing sites have had issues with fecal coliform,dissolved oxygen, and bioaccumulation of a chemical called Dieldrin in fish populations(EPA, 2009).The watershed provides fresh water resources for a wide variety of communitiesand use types. In the coastal region of the Ogeechee River basin much of the surfacewater connections are brackish. The primary source for freshwater is groundwatersupplies. In the Ogeechee River basin there is one community public water systemutilizing surface water and serves 2,800 people and 355 community public water systemsutilizing ground water and serving approximately 368,000 people. In 1995 approximately2.62 mgd (million gallons per day) were utilized for agricultural irrigation (GAEPD,1995).These water use trends are expected to continue as the areas population continuesto grow. According to a 2002 Pew Oceans Commission report, the national coastalpopulation will increase 20 percent by 2015, amounting to a daily increase of 3,600people (New Georgia Encyclopedia, 2009). The area comprising the Coastal OgeecheeWatershed is a prime example of these growth patterns. Georgia’s coastal populationgrew by about 30,000, or about 5.5 percent, between 1998 and 2002. The populationgrowth in the eleven counties of the Georgia coastal zone between 1970 and 2000 was210,505, an average growth of 16 percent per decade. (Ibid, 2009) The Natural ResourcesSpatial Analysis Lab (NARSAL) at the University of Georgia maintains data on land usetrends throughout Georgia (GLUT). Their data reports that between 1974 and 2005 theamount of land utilized for low intensity urban settlement increased by more than 38,000acres; High intensity urban settlement has increased by more than 7000 acres (NARSAL,2005). Much of this urban development has occurred around the City of Savannah whichsits within the COW. This has led to increased threats of non-point source pollution in theform of rainwater run-off.Section 2: Ogeechee Coastal Watershed ResourcesThe Ogeechee Watershed area is an extremely diverse ecologic system. TheOgeechee River basin contains parts of the Piedmont and Coastal Plain regions ofGeorgia. Its headwaters are formed in Greene county Georgia at 198 meters above sealevel and flow southeasterly 425 kilometers to Ossabaw Island and the Atlantic Ocean.The river flow begins in the Piedmont Region, but the majority (95 percent) of theOgeechee River basin lies in the Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province and iscomprised of forests (48%), agricultural lands (36%) and wetlands (13 %) (NARSAL,2005). The Ogeechee River is one of Georgia’s few remaining free flowing streams.Unlike the neighboring Savannah River the Ogeechee river flow is not impeded at anypoint by dams or hydroelectric activities. The river drains over 14,000 square kilometersand there are several distinctive habitats along the drainage basin including, forests,freshwater and saltwater wetlands, tidal creeks and rivers, sounds, dunes, beaches andmarine ecosystems. The watershed provides habitat for numerous species of fish, diversefauna and a biologic representation greater than tropical rainforests (GAEPD, 1995).While fish, insects and other aquatic organisms can be found living within the rivers andstreams themselves, birds, mammals and other terrestrial organisms find food and shelterin the vegetation that grows in the floodplain swamps and bottomland hardwood forests.These natural resources provide habitat, food and shelter for many important resident andmigratory organisms and contribute greatly to the region’s natural beauty, economic wellbeing and quality of life. In this section we will review some of these unique ecosystems.2.1 Freshwater WetlandsThe Ogeechee River is classified as a blackwater coastal stream. The rivers teacolored appearance is a result of tannins produced by decaying tree roots and otherorganic materials passing through the sandy soil and staining the water. The lowerreaches of the Ogeechee River basin flow through the extensive freshwater wetlands ofGeorgia’s coastal region. Although coastal Georgia is dominated and characterized by it’scoastal marshlands these freshwater wetlands are extremely important natural resources.Found throughout coastal Georgia, freshwater wetlands form along freshwater rivers andstreams, in poorly drained depressions, and in the shallow waters located around theedges of lakes, ponds and coastal marshlands (New Georgia Encyclopedia, 2009).Freshwater wetlands, which include marshes, swamps and bogs provide habitat for awide variety of animals, including fish, mink, otter and alligator, and are a popularroosting and nesting place for many birds. The wetlands around the Ogeechee alsosupport a wide range of threatened and endangered species such as many fragileamphibian populations, which are threatened globally (Houlahan et al., 2000).Freshwater wetlands provide many important ecological services and functions,including pollutant removal, flood attenuation, erosion control, groundwater recharge andwildlife habitat (Wright et al., 2006). Recent wetland valuation studies have estimatedthat freshwater wetlands and the services they provide may be worth as much as$370,000 per acre (Heimlich et al., 1998). These wetlands provide a number ofrecreational opportunities, including hunting, fishing, canoeing and bird watching, whichcan generate income for communities located near or adjacent to these important aquaticresources. According to a 2008 report, Americans spent more than $122 billion onoutdoor activities in 2006 (USFWS and USCB, 2008). These included activities in oraround freshwater ecosystems. In Georgia alone, residents and tourists spent more than$3.5 billion on these activities (USFWS and USCB, 2008). The Center for WatershedProtection (CWP) recommends that high priority should be given to protecting coastalGeorgia’s freshwater wetlands because of their value and particular sensitivity to thedirect impacts of the land development process (CWP, 2009).2.2
Estuarine AreasEstuaries are large, semi-enclosed bodies of water where water from freshwaterrivers and streams meet and mix with saltwater from the ocean (New GeorgiaEncyclopedia, 2009). In coastal Georgia, the influence of the Atlantic Ocean extendsnearly 60 miles inland and creates a tidal range of between 6 and 9 feet (GADNR CoastalResources Division (CRD), 2007). These areas include tidal rivers, tidal creeks, sounds,coastal marshlands and tidal flats. These are transitional areas between land and seaenvironments and provide critical habitat and nursery areas for a diverse community ofaquatic organisms including sea and shore birds, fish, crabs, marine mammals, clams,mussels, marine worms and reptiles (GADNR Wildlife Resources Division (WRD),2005).The Ogeechee River is one of Georgia’s major tidal rivers that meets the AtlanticOcean to create the estuarine environment. Estuarine rivers like the Ogeechee providehabitat for a variety of aquatic organisms, including fish, dolphins, manatees, whales,alligators, turtles, plankton, nematodes and marine worms (New Georgia Encyclopedia,2009). As well as being a valuable wildlife habitat the Ogeechee River has great deal ofhistorical and cultural significance as highly traveled waterway and trade route forindigenous peoples and European settlers. The Ogeechee remains a heavily utilizedrecreational site and subsistence fishing source. At the mouth of this tidal river we find amassive expanse of coastal marshland.More than 195,000 acres of the Coastal Ogeechee Watershed is covered by saltmarsh. Salt marsh vegetation consists chiefly of smooth cord grass or Spartina in thewidespread low marsh areas. These areas range from two to five mile wide sectionsbetween the mainland and the barrier islands. They provide spawning ground forabundant wildlife such as fish, crabs, shrimp and other shellfish. These economicallyimportant fish and shellfish species found in coastal marshlands contribute an estimated$5 billion to the value of the national fishing and shell fishing industries (US EPA, 1993)They also serve as an important nutrient load site and produce and store vital nutrientsthat are carried to and from estuaries and ocean waters to sustain aquatic life (NewGeorgia Encyclopedia, 2009).Marshlands are an important buffer zone between the ocean and the land. Theseareas aide in the control and dispersal of flood waters during hurricanes and other largestorm surges. The marshlands also act as a crucial collection and filtering location forpollutants (EPA, 2006). Throughout the marsh we find a twisting array of tidal creekswinding through the coastal marshlands into Ossabaw Sound. While the sound isprotected from the full force of ocean waves, winds and storms by the barrier islands. TheOgeechee meets with the waters of the Atlantic at Ossabaw Sound. These shelteredwaters provide habitat for a diverse group of aquatic organisms including fish, turtles,dolphins, manatees, whales, shrimp and blue crabs (WRD, 2005). Approximately 75percent of the commercial fish species caught in the United States use the estuarineenvironment as habitat during at least one stage of their life (Morton, 1997). Thesecommercial fish species, together with their recreational counterparts, support a nationalfishing industry that is worth an estimated $12 billion (US EPA, 1993).2.3 Barrier Islands and Marine EcosystemsThe Coastal Ogeechee Watershed encompasses nearly 250,000 acres of openwaters and six of Georgia’s barrier island ecosystems (NARSAL, 2005). The coastalwaters of the Atlantic Ocean provide habitat for a wide variety of marine life, includingbottlenose dolphins, manatees, green and leatherback turtles. They also provide habitatfor many commercially important species of fish and shellfish, including shrimp, bluecrab, star drum, spot and croaker (WRD, 2005). As a result, they are a popular place forboth commercial and recreational fishing. Within these waters we find Georgia’s barrierislands.Wassaw, Ossabaw, St. Catherine’s, Blackbeard, Sapelo, and Wolf Island eachrepresent a unique and valuable ecosystem. All of these islands are accessible only byboat. Of those Blackbeard, Wassaw, and Wolf islands are national wildlife refuges. LittleTybee, Ossabaw, and Sapelo are owned by the state of Georgia (New GeorgiaEncyclopedia, 2009). These barrier islands typically have four ecosystems: sweeping saltmarshes, maritime forests, freshwater sloughs, and hard-packed sandy beaches. On theislands’ western sides are the vast tidal salt marshes. The coastal marshes, tidal creeks,and connecting estuaries are important nursery areas for fish, crab, shrimp, and othermarine species. Further inland, the maritime forests begin abruptly. The mature maritimeforests of Georgia’s islands are dominated by live oaks festooned with Spanish moss,southern magnolias, pines, and cabbage palms. Underneath this canopy are shrubs andsuch smaller trees as American holly, cherry laurel, red bay, saw palmetto, sparkleberry,wax myrtle, and yaupon holly (New Georgia Encyclopedia, 2009). The island beachesalso provide habitat for a variety of plants and animals, including turtles, soft-shelledclams, crabs and worms. Sea and shore birds feed extensively on beaches and over 75percent of migratory waterfowl live on or depend on beaches for food or shelter during atleast one stage of their lives (US EPA, 1998).As we have shown the Coastal Ogeechee Watershed is a highly valuableresource, which is integral to the development and sustainment of the region. Aspopulations grow the need for drinking water supply will increase as will the need foragricultural supply in the drought ravaged upper regions of the Ogeechee River Basin.This growing demand for water resources will require a comprehensive managementapproach that sufficiently accounts for the economic development needs of the regionwhile maintaining the necessary ecologic stability of the resource. The COW faces manythreats and both point source and non-point sources of pollution. Adequately identifyingand cataloging these threats is an essential tool to mitigating their effects on watershedhealth. In the next section we will look at stresses in the Coastal Ogeechee Watershed.Section 3: Coastal Ogeechee Watershed StressesThe Coastal Ogeechee Watershed faces numerous threats to its stability. Along withits numerous ecologic functions across diverse ecosystems, the Ogeechee River haslong served as integral source of economic development for the coastal region ofGeorgia. The Ogeechee River and the associated ecologies in the Ogeechee RiverBasin have long been utilized for agricultural and community development. With thecontinued growth and development of the area there has always accompanied anincreasing stress on the environment. As land has been cleared, filled and altered foragriculture and urban development there has been a perpetual growth in waterwithdrawal and contaminated runoff. In this section we will examine the threats to theCoastal Ogeechee Watershed.3.1 Agricultural3.1.1 Consumption ratesThe Coastal Ogeechee Watershed rests at the end of the Ogeechee River Basin. TheOgeechee River resides in Georgia’s Coastal Plain Region. According to a 2001 reportissued at the Georgia Water Resources Conference at the University of Georgia thecoastal plain watersheds rely much more heavily on groundwater supplies than doother Georgia watersheds. In 1995 groundwater supplies in Georgia were pumped at arate of 538 million gallons per day (mgd). Of this, the Piedmont regions of Georgiaaccounted for 71 mgd, while the coastal plain region consumed 467 mgd (Alber andSmith, 2001). The vast majority of the groundwater that was withdrawn waswithdrawn in the coastal plain. Only 10% of the water withdrawn in 1995 was actuallyconsumed, with the remainder returned to the surface water after being utilized forirrigation (Alber and Smith, 2001). Irrigation represented the largest consumptive use,and much of this occurred in the coastal plainCurrently, there are 13 groundwater permits issued for agricultural use in thewatershed. In aggregate, these permits allow groundwater to be pumped at a rate of3,570 gallons per mi
nute. Similarly, 3 surface water permits are dispersed throughoutthe watershed. In total, these permits allow surface water to be pumped at a rate of3,600 gallons per minute. Together, agricultural groundwater and surface waterpermits in the Coastal Ogeechee Watershed authorize total freshwater withdrawals at arate of 7,170 gallons per minute. This withdrawal is having debilitating effects on themainland freshwater ecosystems as well as the barrier islands. As noted above many ofthe coastal freshwater wetlands depend on groundwater surface connections to sustaintheir unique ecosystem.Jane Griess is the manager of the Savannah Coastal Refuges Complex (SCRC). Therefuge complex creates a chain of national wildlife refuges which extends fromPinckney Island NWR near Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, to Wolf Island NWRnear Darien, Georgia. Between these lie Savannah, Wassaw, Tybee, Harris Neck, andBlackbeard Island refuges. Together they span a 100-mile coastline and total over56,000 acres. Many of these islands rest within the Coastal Ogeechee Watershed. In arecent interview Griess stated that historic artesian wells, which have been supplyingthe barrier islands with freshwater for centuries, are drying up on several of thefederally protected islands (Griess, 2009). These wells are drying because groundwaterrecharge rates have been outpaced by groundwater pumping for agricultural irrigationand drinking water for new community development. Exacerbating this issue for theSCRC is decreased rainfall in the Piedmont regions of Georgia and decreased flowrates in the neighboring Savannah River. These issues create increasing demands onthe Ogeechee River and will be addressed later. In addition to the massive amount ofwater pumped out by regional agriculture, there is an additional concern with thequality of the water returned to the groundwater system after its agricultural use.3.1.2Agricultural Run-offStudies conducted on agricultural run-off have shown that the nutrients, Nitrogen(N) and Phosphorus (P) in particular, are often the primary cause of poor surface waterquality in watersheds characterized by high levels of agricultural activity (Parker,Droste & Kennedy, 2008; Dukes and Evans, 2006). Additionally total organic carbon(TOC) with which N and P are associated, contributes to dissolved oxygen (DO)depletion was of concern. Nitrogen pollution of groundwater has been reported inmany regions with intensive agricultural production, with more prominent impactsnoted in humid regions (Dukes and Evans, 2006). Nitrogen is a biologically limitingnutrient in estuarine environments with excess inputs resulting in increased biologicalgrowth of algae and other aquatic weeds (Dukes and Evans 2006). Generally, riparianbuffering, controlled drainage, and nutrient management are suggested to reducenitrogen losses from agricultural fields.3.2 Urban Development and Stormwater Runoff3.2.1 Landscape DevelopmentThe process of land development significantly alters the landscape by clearing,grading and the removal of trees, shrubs and other vegetation. Filling is used to createclear and level building sites in natural drainage features and depression areas. Theseactivities can have significant effect on the hydrologic processes of the area. In Chatham,Bryan, Liberty and McIntosh Counties alone, over 60,000 acres of forested wetlands havebeen converted to other land uses since 1974 (NARSAL, 2008). Over the years there hasbeen much improved federal, state and local regulations to help slow the rate of wetlandloss over the last few decades; However, land development activities, such as filling,draining, dredging and impounding, continue to threaten the health of these and otherimportant natural resources in coastal Georgia.In May 2009 the Southern Environmental Law Center (SELC) sent a letter to ColonelEdward Curtis, Commander of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Savannah District,expressing opposition to the permits issued by the Corps in response to the AmericanRecovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). In this missive the SELC was representing thefollowing organizations; American Rivers, Natural Resources Defense Council, NationalWildlife Federation, Altamaha Riverkeeper, Center for a Sustainable Coast, ChattoogaConservancy, Coosa River Basin Initiative, Flint Riverkeeper, Georgia Conservancy,Georgia River Network, Glynn Environmental Coalition, GreenLaw, OgeecheeCanoochee Riverkeeper, Satilla Riverkeeper, Savannah Riverkeeper, and the UpperChattahoochee Riverkeeper. All of these groups were seeking to engage the Commanderin discussion on the proposal to issue permits which allow developers to fill up to fiveacres of wetlands and up to 1000 linear feet of perennial streams (SELC, 2009). In linearprojects the permits allow for fill up to 10 acres of wetlands and 2000 linear feet ofintermittent or perennial streams (Ibid). This letter illustrates the problem of unabatedgrowth and continued wetland degradation. This letter of complaint also denotesstructural issues in local watershed management. The role of stakeholder representationin the Coastal Ogeechee Watershed will be addressed later in the Discussion section. Fornow we will focus on the effects of this land alteration on area hydrology.3.2.2 Stormwater Run-off3.2.2.1 Peak Runoff VolumeWhen a site is altered for development, its hydrology is fundamentally altered.Clearing removes the trees, shrubs and other vegetation that once reduced stormwaterrunoff volumes through the hydrologic processes of interception, evaporation andtranspiration (CWP, 2009). Grading removes the native soils and natural depression areasthat once worked to retain rainfall and stormwater runoff on site. Compaction reduces theinfiltration capacity of the underlying soils and increases the amount of rainfall that isconverted to stormwater runoff. The addition of roads, parking lots, rooftops and otherimpervious surfaces only works to further increase stormwater runoff volumes. In theend, much of the rainfall that was once retained on a development site is now convertedto stormwater runoff. This increase in flow rates can have significant erosion impacts onreceiving streams and riparian vegetation (CWP, 2003; Roberts, Johnstona, Mullera &Pore, 2008). The washing out of stream beds and nutrient sources can severely impair theecosystems ability to sustain aquatic life. Stormwater QualityStorm water is a pulse disturbance that is capable of conveying large quantities ofchemical contaminants to recipient environments in a short amount of time. Thesecontaminants may accumulate in sediments and microalgae and have been linked to thechronic degradation of biological communities in soft sediment habitats (Roberts,Johnstona, Mullera & Pore, 2008). Storm water events are typically discrete andrelatively short (hours to days) and produce exposures to contaminants potentially lastingfrom only minutes to hours. Pollutants, including sediment, trash and construction debrisfrom cleared, graded and compacted development sites are picked up and washed intoreceiving streams and other aquatic resources during storm events. Pollutants thataccumulate on impervious surfaces and on compacted pervious surfaces, such as lawns,parks and athletic fields, during dry weather are picked up and transported into receivingwaters during rainfall events (CWP, 2003; Roberts, Johnstona, Mullera & Pore, 2008;Sanders, et al.,2006).In addition to gathering of pollutants as it moves through the developed landscape,stormwater runoff will also pick up another dangerous additive, heat. Impervioussurfaces, such as rooftops, roads and parking lots, tend to retain heat when exposed tosunlight (USGBC, 2008). This is what is known as a heat island effect. As stormwaterrunoff moves over these impervious surfaces it absorbs this radiant heat and increases intemperature. When this “heated” stormwater runoff is conveyed into a river, stream,wetland or other aquatic resource, it can decrease the amount of dissolved oxygencontained within the water column, which reduces the amount of oxygen that is availableto aquatic organisms (CWP, 2003; Sanders, et al., 2006).3.3 Industr
ial PollutionWhile there does not currently exist a focused study on industrial discharges in theCOW…

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