Scholars proposed several models. Two such models propounded by Albanese (1989. 1994, as cited in Lampe, 2003) is the bureaucratic model (hierarchical) and patron-client model. The crime group Cosa Nosa was originally studied to belong to the bureaucratic model but also categorized by other scholars under patron-client model who challenged the earlier categorization (Williams, n.d.. Lampe, 2003).
Cressey (1969, as cited in Lampe, 2003) typifies the hierarchical model as a “nationwide bureaucratic organizational entity” (para. 3). Joe Albini (1971, as cited in Lampe, 2003) and Francis and Liz Ianni (1972, as cited in Lampe, 2003) saw the patron-client model as a “web of asymmetric ties” interlinked with the regional and cultural networks (para. 3). The organized crime bureaucratic model has a “hierarchical or pyramidal structures” with branches nationwide, operates an illegal cartel, the bureaucracy governed by a central commission, and there is a clear-cut division of tasks and specialized functions among the branches (Williams, n.d., p. 62). Therefore, it is described as more corporate in structure with defined operative functions. OC under this model has specific skills and expertise, administer the organization through hierarchy and follows a procedure (Abadinsky, n.d.). The structure depends on the particular skills and capacity of members and not on ethnicity (Abadinsky, n.d.). The organization even hires employees, secretaries, accountants and lawyers (Abadinsky, n.d.). Embarking on new illicit ventures is motivated by purely financial concerns and not by power or personal consideration (Abadinsky, n.d.).
The patron-client model, used as a political machine, can be traced on the in-flow of migrants from other countries (Abadinsky, n.d.). The migrants that grew dramatically from early 1900s to mid-1900 were discriminated upon, the object of hostility and worked on dangerous conditions (Abadinsky, n.d.).